History. Invasions into Britain

Exercise 1Read the text and get ready to do exercises

The people who now live in Britain are descended from various peoples who inhabited the British Isles many years ago. The first settlers on the British Isles were Iberians who came from the Iberian Peninsula (the area of Spain and Portugal) between History. Invasions into Britain 3000 and 2000 BC. The Iberians stayed comparatively long before they were attacked or driven away westwards by the numerous Celtic tribes (Picts, Scots and Britons), which came from Central Europe and the Rhine valley in the period between the 6th and 3rd centuries BC. Their culture goes back History. Invasions into Britain to about 1200 BC. Between 500 and 250 BC, they were the most powerful people north of the Alps. They were pagan, with priests known as Druids. They later converted to the Christianity. It was the Celtic missionaries who spread the Christian religion through Scotland and northern England. The Celts were famous artists History. Invasions into Britain, known for their sophisticated designs, which are found in their elaborate jewelry, decorated crosses and illuminated manuscripts.

In the middle of the 1st century AD Britain was successfully invaded by the Romans who stayed on the island for four centuries, living in the military camps, building towns, roads, walls and bridges History. Invasions into Britain. The Romans set up their capital in London (Londinium) and built major cities which contained beautiful buildings, squires and public baths. By AD 383 the Roman Empire was collapsing and Roman legions had left to fight the tribes on the continent.

After the Roman legions left Britain at the beginning History. Invasions into Britain of the 5th century the British Isles were almost immediately attacked by numerous invaders from all sides. Germanic tribes – the Jutes, the Saxons and the Angles attacked Britain from the south and east, Danes and Norsemen from Scandinavia in the north-east. Again the native population was History. Invasions into Britain driven to the west (Wales) and north (Scotland). These tribes gave the name to the country, and their language formed the basis of the Old English language.

About AD 790, the Vikings started to invade England. The Norsemen, who came from Norway, mainly settled in Scotland and Ireland. The north and east History. Invasions into Britain of England were settled by Danes. The Vikings were excellent traders and navigators. In 1016, GB became part of the Scandinavian empire.

The last in the long succession of invaders on the British Isles were the Normans, the Norsemen who had assimilated in France. In 1066, led by Duke of Normandy History. Invasions into Britain (who went into history as William the Conqueror), they crossed the Channel and conquered England,. England became a strong centralized country under military rule. For almost two centuries there were two languages, two nations and two cultures in the country. The New English (Middle English) greatly enriched and changed History. Invasions into Britain under the influence of Norman-French.

The mixture of nations must not be overlooked. It is inaccurate to refer to the British as English. This mistake is мейд all over the world – when talking about English. Such reference may hurt the Welsh, the Scots, and the Irish History. Invasions into Britain. Thus everybody from the UK is British, but only people from England are English.

Exercise 2Answer the questions

1)Where did the first settlers come from to Britain?

2)What were the names of the Celtic tribes?

3)What was the religion of the Celts?

4)When did the Roman invasion into Britain start?

5)What were History. Invasions into Britain the consequences of the Roman invasion?

6)What was the second important invasion into Britain? Name the tribes who мейд it.

7)What happened in 1066? How did it happen?

8)Who were the last invaders? How did they influence the British culture?

Exercise 3 Make a presentation or a report about the History. Invasions into Britain next periods of the UK history (consult the additional material):

1)The Middle Ages

2)The Tudor period

3)The Stuart Period

4)The Georgian period

Text 4

London

Exercise 1Read the text and get ready for topic for discussion (exercise 2)

London, the capital of Great Britain, is one of the largest cities in the world. It is History. Invasions into Britain a big port and a major industrial, commercial and cultural centre. London stands on the river Thames which flows into the North Sea. For centuries entry to London from the sea was guarded by the Tower fortress. The Tower was built 9 centuries ago. It once served as a royal residence History. Invasions into Britain and later as a prison. Now it is a museum. Ravens have always lived in the Tower. There is popular belief that if ravens left the fortress, Britain Empire will fall. This bridge built in 1894, is still in daily use though the traffic in and out of the London History. Invasions into Britain wharves has increased to an extraordinary extent during the course of the 20th century. Even today Tower Bridge regulates a large part of the impressive traffic of the Port of London.

London grew out of the ancient centre known as the City. The City is London’s business centre. The History. Invasions into Britain road to the City runs across London Bridge. One of the most interesting monuments in the City is St. Paul’s Cathedral. It is the finest Renaissance church in Europe. All other English churches are mostly medieval Gothic. The Cathedral was designed by the great English architect History. Invasions into Britain Sir Christopher Wren after the Great Fire of 1666.

London shows examples of building that express all the different areas of its history. Buckingham Palace – is the official London residence of the Sovereign. Whitehall – is a street in central London running from Trafalgar Square to the Houses of Parliament and contains History. Invasions into Britain many important buildings and government offices. Whitehall is a small unimpressive street that no one would give a second look if not for the fact that the Prime Minister has his official residence there at number 10 Downing Street.

Westminster Abbey is the crowning and burial place of British monarchs. It History. Invasions into Britain has its world famed Poets’ Corner with memorials to Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, The Bronte sisters, Burns, Dickens, Thackeray, Rudyard Kipling and other leading writers. Only a few however, are actually buried here.

Trafalgar Square is so named in commemoration of Nelson’s great victory at Trafalgar History. Invasions into Britain. In the middle stands the famous Nelson Column surmounted by the statue of Nelson 170 feet high so as to allow him a view of the sea. The column stands in the geographical centre of the city. It is one of the best open air platforms for public meetings and demonstrations History. Invasions into Britain.

The West End is the most pleasant residential area of London. There are lovely parks in the West End, among them one of the most popular is Hyde Park with its Speakers’ Corner where speakers from various political parties often hold public meetings. There are also luxurious mansions and elegant shops History. Invasions into Britain and restaurants as well as theatres, museums and hotels. Oxford street is one of the busiest thoroughfares in the West End.

While the West End is a residential district of the wealthy, the East End is the place where chiefly industrial and dock workers live. In the East End History. Invasions into Britain there are no magnificent parks and mansions and far from all the men here have a steady job.

Londoners usually either take the tube or the double-decker. Most of London buses are the famous red double-deckers that have two decks for passengers. Bright-red, they look History. Invasions into Britain very nice in the grey streets of London. There are also green one-storied buses, they run from London to the countryside.

Exercise 2 Topics for discussion

1)The three districts of London.

2)The places of Interest in London.

3)Places for going out in London (make your own survey and tell the group History. Invasions into Britain about the results: cinemas, theatres and concert halls, museums and galleries, libraries, trade centers or markets, famous streets or houses, parks, universities).

Text 6

Exercise 1.Listen to the text “Parks and Gardens of London”. These words will help you understand the text better:

A lawn – поляна, газон

A History. Invasions into Britain flower-bed – цветочная клумба

A fountain - фонтан

An avenue - аллейка

Scents of flowers and plants – запахи цветов и растений

Ancient oaks – древнейшие дубы

Glittering water – сверкающая вода

An open-air theatre – зеленоватый театр (на открытом воздухе)

Graceful – грациозный, роскошный

Outdoor entertainments – утехи на открытом воздухе

To drift away – передвигаться

Exercise 2. Answer the questions:

1) Why do Londoners love their parks History. Invasions into Britain? Why are they proud of them?

2) What are the names of the parks mentioned in the text?

3) What each park is famous for?

4) Which park would you like to go to and why?

Text 7

Exercise 1 Read the dialogues and find all the places of interest on the map of History. Invasions into Britain London.

Dialogue 1.

David: This is Whitehall. All these big buildings are Government offices. At the beginning of November every year the Queen drives down Whitehall from Buckingham Palace to open Parliament. Many people come to watch the Queen and the soldiers who ride with her.

Margaret: What are those History. Invasions into Britain buildings at the end of the street?

David: You know the building with the clock; that’s the Houses of Parliament. The building beside it with two towers is Westminster Abbey. Now we’ll go by boat to the Tower.

Edward: How far is it?

David: About three miles. It History. Invasions into Britain’s near Tower Bridge.

Edward: Is that the bridge that opens in the middle to let boats go through?

David: Yes. Now we are going under London Bridge. This bridge isn’t old, but there was a bridge here many years ago with houses and shops on it.

Margaret History. Invasions into Britain: Is that the Tower of London? But there are a lot of towers there.

David: Yes, but the one in the middle – the White Tower – is the Tower.

Margaret: How old is it?

David: About nine hundred years old. Years ago kings and queens lived – and died – here.

Margaret History. Invasions into Britain: Can we get to the National Gallery from here?

David: Yes. We’ll go by bus. Then you can see all the interesting buildings on the way. That’s the Bank of England. This is Fleet Street, with all the newspaper offices. Now we are in the Strand. Charring History. Invasions into Britain Cross Station is on the left, and now we are coming to Trafalgar Square. The National Gallery is on the right.

Margaret: How many pictures are there in the Gallery?

David: About six hundred, I think.

Edward: I am so tired after our tour about the city, but History. Invasions into Britain tomorrow, I hope, we’ll visit the Gallery and enjoy the masterpieces. Thank you very much for your interesting excursion.

Dialogue 2

- Excuse me, can you tell me the way to Trafalgar Square?

- Certainly. Go down Regent Street to Piccadilly Circus and go down the Haymarket. Turn to the left at History. Invasions into Britain the bottom and in less than a minute you’ll be in Trafalgar Square.

- Thank you very much. How far is it from here?

- If you walk, it’ll take you ten minutes or a quarter of an hour.

- Is there a bus?

- There’s sure to be History. Invasions into Britain. But you’d better ask the policeman over there. He’ll give you all the information you want.

- Thank you.

Dialogue 3

- Excuse me, can you tell me where South Street is, please?

- Take the second on the left and go straight on.

- Is it far?

- No, it’s History. Invasions into Britain only about five minutes walk.

- Thank you.

- Not at all.

Dialogue 4

- Is there a bus from here to the National Gallery?

- Yes, take a 12 and ask the conductor to put you down at Trafalgar Square.

- Thank you.

- That’s OK.

Dialogue 5

- Is this the right bus for the Tower History. Invasions into Britain Bridge?

- No, you are going the wrong way. You’ll have to change at the post-office and take a 192.

- Thank you.

- Not at all.

Exercise 2 Find in the dialogues English equivalents for these word combinations and sentences.

1. Что же это все-таки за строения в конце улицы? 2. здание с часами. 3. около History. Invasions into Britain 3-х миль. 4. Это Английский Тауэр? 5. Сколько ему лет? 6. Можно попасть отсюда в Национальную Галерею? 7. Огромное спасибо за увлекательную экскурсионную поездку. 8. Вы не подскажите дорогу к Трафальгарской площади? 9. Поверните влево. 10. Вам будет нужно 10-15 минут. 11. Поверните во вторую улицу слева и идите прямо. 12. Садитесь на 12 автобус. 13.Вы едете History. Invasions into Britain не в ту сторону.

Exercise 3 Translate these dialogues.

1. - Извините, далековато ли отсюда до парламента?

- Очень близко. Сверните во вторую улицу вправо и идите прямо, скоро вы увидите здание парламента с правой стороны.

2. - Что мне еще поглядеть?

- Вы уже были в Английском музее? Я советую вам сходить туда.

- Как мне проехать туда?

- Вы History. Invasions into Britain сможете доехать на метро. Необходимо сделать пересадку у банка.

3. - Простите, этот автобус идет к Трафальгарской площади?

- Нет. Этот автобус не идет туда. Вам необходимо будет пересесть на 12 автобус на остановке “Marble Arch”.

- Спасибо.

- Пожалуйста.

4. - Извините. Скажите, пожалуйста, как мне пройти к наиблежайшей станции метро?

- К огорчению, я не местный History. Invasions into Britain. Спросите лучше у полицейского.

5. - Идет ли отсюда автобус до Гайд-Парка?

- Садитесь на хоть какой автобус и попросите кондуктора посадить вас у Гайд-Парка.

Exercise 4 Make up your own dialogue

Text 8

Famous Englishmen

Exercise 1 Look at the photos. Who are the people? What are they famous for?

Read 4 Biographies History. Invasions into Britain and write down the surnames before each text. Match the texts with the photos.

1)____________ was a British prime minister and statesman who led the country to victory against Nazi Germany and the Axis powers in World War Two. He was known for his domineering presence, sharp wit, and uncompromising History. Invasions into Britain resilience in the face of adversity, when lesser men would falter. His epic speeches often paraphrased and parodied. He was captured during the Boer War. Yet, he escaped the prison and returned home. Some people say that such event was the most important thing happened within his life History. Invasions into Britain which may motivate him to contribute better to his country.

2)____________ was an English chemist and physics, known for his pioneering experiments in electricity and magnetism. Many consider him the greatest experimentalist who ever lived. Several concepts that he derived directly from experiments, such as lines of magnetic force, have become common ideas History. Invasions into Britain in modern physics. But he refused to accept a knighthood and declined becoming the President of the Royal Society. He turned down the British Governments request to assist them with the manufacture of chemical weapons that they intended to use in war.

3) ____________ was an English musician, singer History. Invasions into Britain and songwriter who rose to worldwide fame as a founder member of the Beatles, the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed band in the history of popular music. He was the Beatles' most committed rock & roller, their social conscience, and their slyest verbal wit. Lennon strove to break taboos and History. Invasions into Britain to be ruthlessly, publicly honest. He was killed by a crazed fan named Mark David Chapman.

4)___________ was an English writer and social critic. Over the course of his writing career, he wrote the beloved classic novels Oliver Twist, A Christmas Carol, Nicholas Nickleby, David Copperfield, A Tale of Two History. Invasions into Britain Cities and Great Expectations. His writing overlapped. He started Oliver Twist when halfway through Pickwick Papers, and Nicholas Nickleby halfway through Oliver Twist. He had a pet raven called 'Grip'. After it died, he had it stuffed. He loved nicknames. He had a number of different nicknames History. Invasions into Britain for himself and he also gave his children nicknames. He loved magic, cold showers and knew shorthand.

For more information see:

http://www.biography.com/people

Text 9

British Holidays

Before reading

Divide into 3 groups. Each group reads about one of the British Holidays. Then each group presents the holiday answering the following History. Invasions into Britain questions:

1)When is the holiday celebrated?

2)What occasion is commemorated/celebrated on this day?

3)What do the British usually do on this day?

Notes:

Good Friday - Величавая пятница, пятница на страстной неделе, является официальным выходным деньком. В сей день по традиции едят жаркие булки с крестами.

Boxing Day - денек рождественских History. Invasions into Britain подарков, 2-ой денек рождества, 26 декабря, официальный выходной денек. В сей день принято даровать подарки. Безбедные люди делают маленькие валютные подарки прислуге, почтальону и т.д.

the Battle of the Boyne – битва на реке Бойн (1690), принесла победу королю Вильгельму III над войсками Якова II, окончила процесс покорения Ирландии Великобританией (по History. Invasions into Britain наименованию реки в Ирландии, на которой проходило схватка).

England and Wales. Most public holidays in the United Kingdom are also known as “Bank Holidays’. These holidays are: New Year’s Day (January 1st), Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day (first Monday in May), Spring Bank Holiday (last Monday in May History. Invasions into Britain), August Bank Holiday (last Monday in August), Christmas Day (December 25th), Boxing Day (December 26th).

Scotland. The Scots do not usually celebrate Good Friday or Boxing Day. In the winter they concentrate instead on Hogmanay, their version of New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day History. Invasions into Britain, which is even more of a festive occasion than Christmas.

Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland has several additional festivals of its own, namely, St. Patrick’s Day in Catholic communities (March 17th) and Orange Day, in Protestant communities, celebrating the Battle of the Boyne (July 12th).

CHRISTMAS

For most British families History. Invasions into Britain this is the most important festival of the year. They decorate their houses with brightly-coloured paper or holly, and they usually have a Christmas tree in the corner of the front room, glittering with coloured lights and decorations. There are a lot of traditions connected with Christmas but perhaps the History. Invasions into Britain most important one is the giving of presents. Children leave a long sock or stocking at the end of their bed on Christmas Eve, December 24th, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them small presents, fruits and nuts. On History. Invasions into Britain Christmas Day the family sits down to a big turkey dinner followed by Christmas pudding. Later in the afternoon they may watch the Queen on television as she delivers her traditional Christmas message to the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth.

FIRST-FOOTING*

In parts of Northern England and in Scotland History. Invasions into Britain the old custom of first-footing is still observed. Tradition says that the first person to enter a house on New Year’s Day should be a dark-haired man, otherwise ill-luck will follow. It is also advisable that the person should bring with him a gift – a History. Invasions into Britain piece of coal, a fish, a bottle of whisky or a piece of bread – they are traditional gifts. Curiously enough, in a few other parts of the country, the First-Footer is required to be a fair-haired man! In the past, young men of the right colouring and History. Invasions into Britain with an eye to business would offer their service as First-Footer to households in the district – for a small fee.

FEBRUARY 14th

It’s the day, when boys and girls, sweethearts and lovers, and even the office staff exchange greetings of affection, undying love or satirical comment. And a quick History. Invasions into Britain modern way to do it is a Valentine’s card. Valentines as we know them first appeared in the 18th century and were cards with drawings and verses мейд by the sender. In the 19th century shop-made Valentines appeared and became increasingly elaborately adorned with lace, real flowers History. Invasions into Britain, feathers and moss. Valentine-sending revives from time to time.

The first Valentine of all was a bishop, a Christian martyr, who before he was put to death by the Romans, sent a note of friendship to his jailer’s blind daughter.

HALLOWEEN

Another popular British tradition is Halloween History. Invasions into Britain, celebrated on October, 31, the eve of All Saints’ Day. Halloween customs date back to the time when people believed in devils, witches and ghosts. They thought that they could do all kinds of damage to property. Some people tried to ward off witches by painting magic signs or History. Invasions into Britain nailing a horseshoe. Now most people do not believe in evil spirits. Today the day is usually marked by costume balls or fancy-dress parties and is a popular tradition with young people and children. On the night of Halloween children or grown-ups visit houses and ask the residents if History. Invasions into Britain they want “trick” or “treat”. If the people in the house give the children a “treat” (usually money or sweets), then the children will not play a trick on them. Another Halloween custom is to scrape out a pumpkin, cutting eyes, nose and mouth and lighting a History. Invasions into Britain candle inside, this is мейд to scare their friends.

Speech exercises

Speak on the topic:

1). Geographical position, minerals, economy, climate.

2) Britain History

3). Holidays and traditions of Great Britain

4) London and its sights

5) Cities of Great Britain and their sights (you should find information yourself either from the texts in Appendix or from other sources.

Written History. Invasions into Britain tasks

Exercise 1.Write a letter to your friend from Germany. Here is a part from her letter.

“ … I am very glad that your report on holidays in Britain was highly estimated. Could you tell me about the most ancient ones and I will tell you about our holidays in my next History. Invasions into Britain letter.

Looking forward to getting your letter.

Much love,

Greta”

Observe the rules of letter writing.

Exercise 1.Write a letter to your friend from the USA. Here is a part of his letter.

“ …I am sure that cities and towns of my country are the most beautiful in the History. Invasions into Britain world. But I’ve heard that you visited Great Britain last month. Is it true that the cities there are interesting from the point of view of history and architectural monuments? Are they worth visiting? What cities are the musts for the sightseer?

Hope to hear from you History. Invasions into Britain soon.

Much love,

Alex”

Observe the rules of letter writing.

Exercise 2.Different nations have similar myths and legends. What about holidays? Some people say that we find similar holidays in different countries. Others say that in spite of similarity all holidays are different.

What’s your opinion? You can History. Invasions into Britain use your knowledge about holidays in other countries besides Great Britain and Russia (for example, the USA, Australia, Germany, France, etc).

Follow the plan:

1. Make a general statement of the problem.

2. Give your opinion and your reasons.

3. Give other people’s opinion and say why they are not right.

4. Make History. Invasions into Britain a conclusion

Appendix

BRISTOL

The counties of Devon, Cornwall, and Somerset are often called the West Country. Urban development of this region is very limited and Bristol is the great exception among the towns of the area, other settlements in this part of the country being small.

Bristol is History. Invasions into Britain situated at the junction of the Avon and the Frome. It is a major port and industrial centre. It is an ancient city and it has always been a strictly commercial place and has remained such to this day. Little is known of its early history but its medieval trade was History. Invasions into Britain extended to Gascony, Spain and Portugal.

In 1400 it was considered to be the second greatest port of England. Now it is eighth in the United Kingdom. It is a regional capital and five times as large as the next town in the area. Bristol has a large variety History. Invasions into Britain of industries, of which aircraft design and construction at Filton is the most important. Other significant industries are paper-making, printing and flour-milling.

Bristol is a University town. Its university was founded in 1876 first as a university college. Now there are flourishing colleges of science and technology, art and History. Invasions into Britain commerce.

The Mendip hills separate Bristol from the lowland of the Somerset plain. Once this area was marshy but now that it has been extensively drained it carries great numbers of dairy cattle. Cheddar cheese is one of its best known products.

BIRMINGHAM

Long famous as an international business centre, Birmingham History. Invasions into Britain has developed into a modern and exciting city, its buildings and shops are second to none.

Birmingham is at the heart of Britain’s motorway system. The superbly designed inner ring road is easily identified by its red surface and gives easy access to the city centre History. Invasions into Britain.

Massive post-war development schemes have meant exciting new buildings. But the best of the old has been preserved.

The city’s museum and art gallery has some of the finest examples of pre-Raphaelite painting, with works by Burne-Jones and William Morris. The Science Museum houses the earliest History. Invasions into Britain English locomotive actually built (1784).

Birmingham’s ultra-modern library is one of the largest and best stocked in Europe and includes the Shakespeare Memorial Library with 40, 000 books in 90 languages.

The city possesses several interesting churches and two cathedrals.

Shopping facilities in Birmingham are a magnet for thousands; there is a History. Invasions into Britain wealth of variety that few places in Britain can rival. The multilevel Bull Ring Shopping Centre is completely traffic free and linked by subways with the major shopping streets of the city. It includes most kinds of retail shops, open-air and covered markets, banks, restaurants and offices History. Invasions into Britain. Equally impressive is the air-conditioned New Street Shopping Centre.

Birmingham has more canals than Venice. Some canal basins have been developed as recreational centres, with walks, pubs, restored buildings and boat trips from Gas Street Basin and Cambrian Wharf.

The city has excellent facilities for all kinds of спорт History. Invasions into Britain. It boasts twenty swimming pools and eight municipal golf courses, as well as many private clubs. Edgbaston Reservoir is a 60-acre lake for sailing, rowing and fishing, and the Wyndley Leisure Centre at Sutton Coldfield provides facilities for indoor sports. Test and County cricket is

Edinburgh

The largest History. Invasions into Britain city of Scotland and its capital, Edinburgh is situated in the eastern part of the Central Lowlands. The city has been an important strategic centre throughout the long Scottish history with its numerous wars. Edinburgh is one of the most beautiful cities in the country, historically it is divided into the Old History. Invasions into Britain Town and the New City. The Old Town with the Castle that towers over Princess Street is situated on the Castle Rock, one of several hills which overshadow the modern city. The New City began to be built to the north of the Castle in the History. Invasions into Britain mid-18th century and was eventually linked with the Old Town by bridges.

Edinburgh’s industries are of considerable importance. The city is considered as a major centre of rubber production. There are also baking and milling industries. The port of Leith makes possible a direct access to the North Sea History. Invasions into Britain. Edinburgh is famous for its University, founded in 1583, and also for its international music festivals.

Cardiff

Cardiff, the largest city of Wales, became its capital in 1956. It is situated near the mouth of the river Taff, which flows into the English Channel. The site was first occupied by a History. Invasions into Britain Roman fort. The Castle now standing at the site of the Roman fort and the old fortress walls around it give a special flavour to the city. There are numerous offices, a government building and several colleges of the University of Wales, and the city park stretches beyond them. Industries are History. Invasions into Britain concentrated in the south of the city and near the port. The port played a great role in the growth of Cardiff in the 19th and early 20th centuries, when most of the Welsh coal exports were handled by it. Engineering in Cardiff includes ship-repairing and History. Invasions into Britain the making of railway cars, oil engines, vehicles and electric gear. It is also known for a great range of light industry.

Belfast

Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland, is the leading industrial, especially engineering centre of the region. Its prominent role is explained by its advantageous geographic situation opposite Britain History. Invasions into Britain. It has grown into a large port as a result. After Ulster had seceded from Ireland, the Belfast port began to handle most of the raw materials and fuel for Northern Ireland. The physical and industrial growth of Belfast was promoted to a large extent by the policy History. Invasions into Britain of the British ruling classes, which backed the development of the eastern part of Ulster with its predominantly English population.

Belfast was the gateway for the English colonization of Ireland and today is the centre of major economic and political contacts with Ulster.


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